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A 70 year old woman was admitted to hospital with severe breathlessness. On examination her blood pressure was 100/55 mmHg and she had a raised JVP by 4 cm. Chest x ray showed mild pulmonary oedema. Investigations revealed:

Haemoglobin 6.6 g/dL

MCV 108 fL

MCH 32.0 pg

White cell count 3.0 x 109 /L

Platelets 75 x 109 /L

Serum Vitamin B12 normal

Folate 2 (3-20) ?g/l

What should be done?

  1. Treat congestive cardiac failure then transfuse
  2. Immediate blood transfusion
  3. Serum electrophoresis
  4. Iron replacement
  5. B12 and folate replacement  

Answer: 5- B12 and folate replacement

A 70 year old woman was admitted to hospital with severe breathlessness. On examination her blood pressure was 100/55 mmHg and she had a raised JVP by 4 cm. Chest x ray showed mild pulmonary oedema. Investigations revealed:

Haemoglobin 6.6 g/dL

MCV 108 fL

MCH 32.0 pg

White cell count 3.0 x 109 /L

Platelets 75 x 109 /L

Serum Vitamin B12 normal

Folate 2 (3-20) ?g/l

What should be done?

  • Treat congestive cardiac failure then transfuse
  • Immediate blood transfusion
  • Serum electrophoresis
  • Iron replacementB12 and folate replacement

Petechiae are more common than soft tissue bleeding
1-Bleeding time is prolonged
3- Factor 8 inhibitors occur in 10% of patients receiving multiple factor 8 transfusion
4- Iron deficiency anaemia is a frequent and persistent problem
5- Joint deformity is rare despite the fact that haemarthrosis is one of the main recurrent manifestations

A 70 year old woman was admitted to hospital with severe breathlessness. On examination her blood pressure was 100/55 mmHg and she had a raised JVP by 4 cm. Chest x ray showed mild pulmonary oedema. Investigations revealed:

Haemoglobin 6.6 g/dL

MCV 108 fL

MCH 32.0 pg

White cell count 3.0 x 109 /L

Platelets 75 x 109 /L

Serum Vitamin B12 normal

Folate 2 (3-20) ?g/l

What should be done?

  • Treat congestive cardiac failure then transfuse
  • Immediate blood transfusion
  • Serum electrophoresis
  • Iron replacement
  • B12 and folate replacement

8 year old boy presents to his GP with lethargy and pallor. His investigations show :

Hb 5.5 g/dl WBC 2.7 x 109/L

Plts 42 x 109/L

Neutrophils 0.9 x 109/L

What is the next best investigation?

  1. Peripheral blood immunophenotyping
  2. Bone marrow cytogenetics
  3. Haematinics
  4. Bone marrow aspirate and trephine
  5. ANA and Rheumatoid factor

Answer: 4- Bone marrow aspirate and trephine

Which one of the following bone sites is the MOST common site involved in bone metastases from carcinomata?
1- Ribs
2- Pelvis
3- Spine
4- Skull
5- Long bones

Answer: 3- Spine

Which one of the following is the MOST common cause of aplastic crisis in a patient with sickle cell disease?
1- Dehydration
2- Respiratory syncytial virus infection
3- Human parvovirus B19 infection
4- Repeated blood transfusion
5- Haemophilus influenzae septicaemia

Answer: 3- Human parvovirus B19 infection

A 70 year old woman was admitted to hospital with severe breathlessness. On examination her blood pressure was 100/55 mmHg and she had a raised JVP by 4 cm. Chest x ray showed mild pulmonary oedema. Investigations revealed:

Haemoglobin 6.6 g/dL

MCV 108 fL

MCH 32.0 pg

White cell count 3.0 x 109 /L

Platelets 75 x 109 /L

Serum Vitamin B12 normal

Folate 2 (3-20) ?g/l

What should be done?

  1. Treat congestive cardiac failure then transfuse
  2. Immediate blood transfusion
  3. Serum electrophoresis
  4. Iron replacement
  5. B12 and folate replacement

Answer: 5- B12 and folate replacement

A 38 year old woman presents to the haematologist for reviewas she has lethargy. She is on iron tablets. Her blood results show:

Hb 9.5 g/dl

MCV 105 fl

WCC 7 x 109/L

platelets 218 x 109/L

Blood film shows anisopoikilocytosis and poikilocytosis

What should be done next?

  1. Intramuscular iron therapy
  2. Blood transfusion
  3. Erythropoietin
  4. Investigation for folate eficiency
  5. No immediate action

Answer: 5- No immediate action

Which one of the following features is characteristic of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)?
1- Infants born to a woman with ITP often presents with bleeding diathesis in the first 48 hours
2- Pancytopenia is a recognised complication
3- Leukaemic transformation occurs late in the disease
4- Splenomegaly is found in 50% of cases
5- Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia is a recognised association

Answer: 5- Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia is a recognised association
Immune thrombocytopenic purpura

A 38 year old woman presents to the haematologist for reviewas she has lethargy. She is on iron tablets. Her blood results show:

Hb 9.5 g/dl

MCV 105 fl

WCC 7 x 109/L

platelets 218 x 109/L

Blood film shows anisopoikilocytosis and poikilocytosis

What should be done next?

  1. Intramuscular iron therapy
  2. Blood transfusion
  3. Erythropoietin
  4. Investigation for folate eficiency
  5. No immediate action

Answer: 5-No immediate action

A 73-year-old man with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is followed up in clinic. He has become increasingly breathless over the last three months but has no other symptoms and is on no medication. On examination, he is pale and has bilateral cervical and inguinal lymphadenopathy and a firm 5-cm splenomegaly. FBC shows: Hb 7.4 g/dl; WCC 25 x 103/mm3; platelets 117 x 103/mm3; urea 15 mmol/l; creatinine 203 mmol/l; bilirubin 49 mmol/l.
Which investigation is most appropriate to demonstrate the likely cause of anaemia?
1- Bone marrow aspirate
2- Autoantibody profile
3- Erythropoietin level
4- Antiglobulin test
5- Urinary haemosiderin

Answer: 4- Antiglobulin test

A 32 year old Cypriot patient is being investigated for anaemia. He has a Hb of 7.5 g/dl and MCV is 70 fl. His brother and sisters are also anaemic. Which one of the following is most likely?

  1. Increased IgM band on serum
  2. electrophoresis
  3. Red cells show marked hypochromia
  4. Severe iron deficiency due to GI bleeding
  5. Severe B12 deficiency due to pernicious anaemia

Answer: 3-Red cells show marked hypochromia

 

Therapeutic plasmapheresis is considered MOST effective in which one of the following types of haemolytic anaemia?

1- Haemolytic anaemia associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae
2- Thalassaemia major
3- Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) associated haemolytic anaemia
4- Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH)
5- Aplastic anaemia

Answer: 1- Haemolytic anaemia associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae

A 35 year old man has diabetes. On examination he also has a slate grey discolouration around his forearm. He has a Hb of 13.5 g/dl, platelet count 350 x 109/L, AST of 35 U/l, ALP is 120 U/l, Albumin 35 g/l, ferritin is 500 µg/l. Which of the following tests is most helpful?

  1. Copper and caeruloplasmin
  2. Transferrin saturation
  3. Fasting glucose
  4. 72 hour fast
  5. Short synacthen test

Answer: 2- Transferrin saturation

A 10-year-old boy is referred for investigation of anaemia. He is generally well but is small for his age. He is progressing well for his age group at school. A male first cousin died of leukaemia. On examination the child is pale and has a few bruises. He is noted to have markedly thickened nails and is below the third centile in height. A blood count shows:
Hb is 7.2 g/dl; WCC 1.2 x 109/L; platelets 20 x 109/L.
What is the most likely explanation for his anaemia?
1- Diamond-Blackfan syndrome
2- Aplastic anaemia
3- Dyskeratosis congenita
4- Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia
5- Fanconi’s anaemia

Answer: 3- Dyskeratosis congenita

A 65 year old woman has symptoms of easy bruising. She was referred by the GP for investigation. On examination, she had splenomegaly. Results show:

Haemoglobin 6.5 g/dL (11.5-16.5) White cell count 17 x 109 /l (4-11) Platelet count 32 x 109 /l (150-400) Blood film shows lymphocytosis, myeloblasts and promyelocytes.

Which one of following investigations is of prognostic value in this situation?

  1. Blood film
  2. Bone marrowaspirate
  3. Cytogenetic karyotyping
  4. Immunophenotyping
  5. Serum electrophoresis

Answer: 3-Cytogenetic karyotyping

 

A 32 year old Cypriot patient is being investigated for anaemia. He has a Hb of 7.5 g/dl and MCV is 70 fl. His brother and sisters are also anaemic. Which one of the following is most likely?

  1. Increased IgM band on serum
  2. electrophoresis
  3. Red cells show marked hypochromia
  4. Severe iron deficiency due to GI bleeding
  5. Severe B12 deficiency due to pernicious anaemia

Answer: 3- Red cells show marked hypochromia

The haematology registrar is contacted urgently about a woman who has attended an antenatal clinic that morning. She is 32 weeks’ pregnant and has a blood pressure of 140/90 mmHg and mild proteinuria. Her pregnancy has been complicated by hyperemesis. At booking at 16 weeks’ gestation:
Her Hb was 11.2 g/dl, MCV 105 fl, MCH 30 pg, MCHC 32 g/dl, WCC 11.3 x 109/L and platelets 237 x 109/L. Now at 32 weeks’ gestation her Hb is 5.9 g/dl, MCV 118 fl, MCH 32 pg, MCHC 32 g/dl, WCC 6.4 x 109/L and platelets 154 x 109/L.
What is the most likely cause of her anaemia?
1- β-Thalassaemia trait
2- Retroplacental haemorrhage
3- Vitamin B12 deficiency
4- Folic acid deficiency
5- Aplastic anaemia

Answer: 4- Folic acid deficiency

A 13 year old child has had recurrent episodes of bone pain. He has been admitted to hospital several times due to severe pains in the last 5 years. He has X rays which show necrosis of the hip. Which of the following diagnosis is likely?

  1. Multiple myeloma
  2. Paget’s disease
  3. Osteopetrosis
  4. Sickle cell disease
  5. Thalassemia

Answer: 4-Sickle cell disease

 

A 26-year-old teacher presents to A&E with a rash on her lower legs and a blood blister on her tongue. Her last menses, 2 weeks ago, was heavier than usual. Otherwise she is very well and has no past medical history of note. On examination, there are several small blood blisters on her tongue and a fine petechial rash on her lower legs. There are no other abnormal clinical findings.
Her Hb is 12.8 g/dl, with normal indices, WCC 8.6 x 109/L, with a normal differential, and platelets 12 x 109/L.
What would the best immediate management of this patient include?
1- Intravenous immunoglobulin
2- Oral prednisolone: 1-2 mg/kg (50-100mg daily dose)
3- Immediate platelet transfusion
4- Transfusion of fresh-frozen plasma
5- All of the above

Answer: 2- Oral prednisolone: 1-2 mg/kg (50-100mg daily dose)

A 65 year old woman has symptoms of easy bruising. She was referred by the GP for investigation. On examination, she had splenomegaly. Results show:

Haemoglobin 6.5 g/dL (11.5-16.5) White cell count 17 x 109 /l (4-11) Platelet count 32 x 109 /l (150-400) Blood film shows lymphocytosis, myeloblasts and promyelocytes.

Which one of following investigations is of prognostic value in this situation?

  1. Blood film
  2. Bone marrow aspirate
  3. Cytogenetic karyotyping
  4. Immunophenotyping
  5. Serum electrophoresis

Answer: 3-Cytogenetic karyotyping

A child has severe anaemia and been diagnosed as having thalassemia major. Which of the following is the major form of haemoglobin present when the condition exists?

  1. Haemoglobin A2
  2. Haemoglobin C
  3. Haemoglobin F
  4. Haemoglobin H
  5. Haemoglobin A

Answer: 3-Haemoglobin F

 

An 80-year-old women regularly attends the haematology out-patients for her chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. She has been followed up for 5 years, her condition has remained stable and she has required no treatment. At this clinic attendance, she reports that she has been feeling extremely tired for the last 2 weeks. On examination she is clinically anaemic and mildly jaundiced. She has a 2-cm splenomegaly. There are no other abnormal physical findings.
Her Hb is 6.3 g/dl, MCV 103 fl, MCH 29 pg, MCHC 32 g/dl, reticulocytes 205 x 109/L (normal range 50-100), WCC 85 x 109/L, with lymphocytes of 65.5 x 109/L and platelets 110 x 109/L.
What is the main cause of her anaemia?
1- Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia
2- Progression of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia
3- Iron deficiency due to blood loss
4- Richter’s transformation of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia
5- Acute folic acid deficiency

Answer: 1- Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia

A 13 year old child has had recurrent episodes of bone pain. He has been admitted to hospital several times due to severe pains in the last 5 years. He has X rays which show necrosis of the hip. Which of the following diagnosis is likely?

  1. Multiple myeloma
  2. Paget’s disease
  3. Osteopetrosis
  4. Sickle cell disease
  5. Thalassemia

Answer: 4-Sickle cell disease

An 80 year old lady complains of mild breathlessness and lethargy. She mentions that she is a vegetarian. There is no history of haemetemesis or melaena. She has a past medical history of congestive cardiac failure. On examination, she is pale, and has vitiligo on her hands. She has a JVP of +4 cm and fine inspiratory crepitations. Her investigations show :

Hb 4.5 g/dl MCV 105

WBC 3.3 x 109/L Plts 120 x 109/L

What is the most important initial management?

  1. Blood transfusion
  2. Start vit B12 and folic acid
  3. Red cell mass studies
  4. Bone marrow aspirate
  5. Schilling test

Answer: 2-Start vit B12 and folic acid

A patient who takes warfarin for atrial fibrillation presents with single episode of melaena. The INR is measured at 7.9. His Hb is noted to be 9.3g /dl. The patient is otherwise well and haemodynamically stable.
In addition to omitting warfarin, what is the most important therapeutic intervention?
1- Platelet infusion
2- Vitamin B12 injection
3- Vitamin K infusion
4- Antithrombin III
5- Fibrinogen substitution

Answer: 3- Vitamin K infusion

Which one of the following malignant tumours has the highest predilection for dissemination to bone?
1- Breast
2- Prostate
3- Kidney
4- Lung
5- Thyroid

Answer: 2- Prostate

A 15 year-old boy presented to clinic with a 6 month history of anorexia and malaise. On examination, he had palpable inguinal lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. Investigations show : Hb 13.1 g/dl White cell count 20 x 109/L

erythrocyte sedimentation rate 15 mm/h

Peripheral blood film showed: atypical lymphocytes, blast cells and neutropenia

What is the most likely diagnosis?

  1. Aplastic anaemia
  2. Acute myeloid leukaemia
  3. Chronic myeloid leukaemia
  4. Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria
  5. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

Answer: 5-Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

 

A 23-year-old woman presents to A&E with oral bleeding. She has noticed it more frequently over the past two weeks and has become breathless when walking up stairs. She has a history of epilepsy and takes phenytoin and a combined oral contraceptive pill. On examination, she is afebrile with swollen gums and has conjunctival pallor.

There is no palpable lymphadenopathy and no abdominal organomegaly. Blood tests show: Hb 6.4 g/dl; MCV 82 fl; red cell distribution width (RDW) 28%; platelets 19 x 103/mm3; WCC 11 x 103/mm3; prothrombin time (PT) 39 s; activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) 98 s; low fibrinogen; increasing fibrin-degradation products (FDPs); albumin 34 g/dl.
What is the unifying diagnosis?
1- Phenytoin toxicity
2- Acute lymphocytic leukaemia
3- Disseminated intravascular coagulation
4- Acute promyelocytic leukaemia
5- Acute myelomonocytic leukaemia

Answer: 4- Acute promyelocytic leukaemia

A child has severe anaemia and been diagnosed as having thalassemia major. Which of the following is the major form of haemoglobin present when the condition exists?

  1. Haemoglobin A2
  2. Haemoglobin C
  3. Haemoglobin F
  4. Haemoglobin H
  5. Haemoglobin A

Answer: 3-Haemoglobin F

A 24-year-old man has been diagnosed with Hodgkin’s lymphoma stage IA.
Which therapy is indicated?
1- Radiotherapy alone
2- Combination chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy
3- High-dose chemotherapy with concurrent radiotherapy
4- High-dose chemotherapy with bone marrow transplantation
5- Lymphadenectomy and chemotherapy

Answer: 2- Combination chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy

A 60 year old woman has had a prolonged ITU stay due to severe pneumonia and sepsis requiring mechanical ventilation. She was noted to have worsening anaemia following discharge from ITU at 4 weeks. Her Hb is 6 g/dl, MCV 109 fl, WCC 2.2 x 109/L, platelets 110 x 109/L. What is the likely cause of anaemia?

  1. Upper GI bleed
  2. Aplastic anaemia
  3. Acute myeloid Leukaemia
  4. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura
  5. Acute folate deficiency

Answer: 5-Acute folate deficiency

What is the most frequent complication causing death in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia?
1- Transformation into highly malignant lymphoma
2- Acute myeloblastic leukaemia due to secondary neoplasia
3- Acute haemorrhage
4- Infections
5- Iron overload due to frequent transfusions

Answer: 4- Infections

An 80 year old lady complains of mild breathlessness and lethargy. She mentions that she is a vegetarian. There is no history of haemetemesis or melaena. She has a past medical history of congestive cardiac failure. On examination, she is pale, and has vitiligo on her hands. She has a JVP of +4 cm and fine inspiratory crepitations. Her investigations show :

Hb 4.5 g/dl MCV 105

WBC 3.3 x 109/L Plts 120 x 109/L

What is the most important initial management?

  1. Blood transfusion
  2. Start vit B12 and folic acid
  3. Red cell mass studies
  4. Bone marrow aspirate
  5. Schilling test

 

 

Answer: 2-Start vit B12 and folic acid

What are the tumour cells called that are found in patients with Hodgkin’s disease?
1- Philadelphia cells
2- Cytotoxic lymphocytes
3- Reed-Sternberg cells
4- Activated lymphocytes
5- Langerhans’ cells

Answer: 3- Reed-Sternberg cells

A patient presents with pancytopenia (anaemia, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia). No material could be obtained from a bone marrow aspiration.
Which is the next investigation employed to obtain a diagnosis?
1- Level of LDH in serum
2- Chromosome analysis
3- Bone marrow biopsy and histological examination
4- Level of alkaline phosphatase in serum
5- Level of Vitamin B12 in serum

Answer: 3- Bone marrow biopsy and histological examination

A 15 year-old boy presented to clinic with a 6 month history of anorexia and malaise. On examination, he had palpable inguinal lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. Investigations show : Hb 13.1 g/dl White cell count 20 x 109/L

erythrocyte sedimentation rate 15 mm/h

Peripheral blood film showed: atypical lymphocytes, blast cells and neutropenia

What is the most likely diagnosis?

  1. Aplastic anaemia
  2. Acute myeloid leukaemia
  3. Chronic myeloid leukaemia
  4. Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria
  5. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

Answer: 5-Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

Hyposplenism is seen least often in which one of the following conditions?
1- Sickle cell disease
2- Coeliac disease
3- Systemic lupus erythematosus
4- Thalassaemia major
5- Dermatitis herpetiformis

Answer: 4- Thalassaemia major

A 29-year-old Caucasian male with AML is in remission following a course of combination chemotherapy. He has some high-risk features and the decision is made that an allogeneic bone marrow transplant should be carried out. His serology is negative for cytomegalovirus (CMV). His tissue type is A1, A24, B8, B18.
Which of the following relatives, all of whom are fit and healthy, would be the best donor?
1- His sister, A1, A24, B8, B18, CMV-positive
2- His brother A1, A24, B8, B18, CMV-positive
3- His sister, A1, A28, B8, B14 CMV-positive
4- His brother, A1, A24, B8, B18, CMV-negative
5- His sister A1, A24, B8, B18, CMV-negative

Answer: 4- His brother, A1, A24, B8, B18, CMV-negative

A 60 year old woman has had a prolonged ITU stay due to severe pneumonia and sepsis requiring mechanical ventilation. She was noted to have worsening anemia following discharge from ITU at 4 weeks. Her Hb is 6 g/dl, MCV 109 fl, WCC 2.2 x 109/L, platelets 110 x 109/L. What is the likely cause of anemia?

  1. Upper GI bleed
  2. Aplastic anaemia
  3. Acute myeloid Leukaemia
  4. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura
  5. Acute folate deficiency

Answer: 5- Acute folate deficiency

Which one of the following features is MOST suggestive of megaloblastic anaemia?
1- Hypersegmented neutrophil in peripheral blood film
2- Atrophic gastritis
3- Pancytopenia
4- Low reticulocyte count
5- Raised LDH

Answer: 1- Hypersegmented neutrophil in peripheral blood film

Which one of the following findings is individually MOST accurate in differentiating chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) from a leukaemoid reaction?
1- Philadelphia chromosome
2- Splenic enlargement
3- Low leucocyte alkaline phosphatase score
4- Hypercellular bone marrow
5- Elevated platelet count

Answer: 1- Philadelphia chromosome

A 15 year old Filipino girl is noted to have a hemoglobin of 10.6 g/dl with an MCV of 65 fl on routine testing. She reports regular menses lasting 4-5 days each cycle. She has no specific complaints. She is unaw are of a family history of anemia. On examination, there is no hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice, or scleral jaundice. What is the likely diagnosis?

  1. Iron deficiency
  2. Lead poisoning
  3. Thalassemia
  4. Sickle cell anaemia
  5. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

Answer: 3- Thalassemia

A 35-year-old man attends the haematology clinic having found a lump in his neck. He feels generally unwell but has no past history. There is axillary lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. FBC shows: WCC 16 x 103/mm3; Hb 8.3 g/dl; platelets 106 x 103/ mm3 and the blood film and bone marrow aspirate show lymphoblasts.
What is the most useful test to make a definitive diagnosis?
1- Cytogenetic analysis
2- Lymph node biopsy
3- Total-body computed tomography (CT) scan
4- Total-body positron-emission tomography (PET) scan
5- Immunophenotyping

Answer: 5- Immunophenotyping

70-year-old female presents with a three month history of exertional dyspnoea and chest pain. She admitted to a poor diet, some vague abdominal pains and having lost 7 kg in weight. Examination revealed pallor, patches of vitiligo on her arms and trunk, ankle oedema and a palpable spleen. Investigations revealed:

Haemoglobin 5 g/dL(11.5-16.5)

MCV 105 fL(80-96)

White cell count 2 x 109/L (4-11)

Platelet count 50 x 109/L (150-400)

Bilirubin 40 µmol/L(1-22)

ALT 60 U/L(1-31)

AST 40 U/L(5-35)

LDH 1000 U/L(10-250)

Which one of the following is the most likely diagnosis?

  1. Aplastic anaemia
  2. Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia
  3. Dietary folate deficiency
  4. Pernicious anaemia
  5. Sideroblastic anaemia

 

Answer: 4-Pernicious anaemia

Which one of the following features is MOST characteristic of Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinaemia?
1- Bone pain
2- Monoclonal IgM peak
3- Renal impairment
4- Multiple osteolytic lesions
5- Absence of immune paresis

Answer: 2- Monoclonal IgM peak

Which one of the following features is MOST helpful in distinguishing b thalassaemia trait from iron deficiency anaemia (IDA)?
1- Microcytosis
2- Haemoglobin A2 levels
3- Reduced haematocrit
4- Splenomegaly
5- Target cells on peripheral blood film examination

Answer: 2- Haemoglobin A2 levels

A 55-year-old solicitor with known stomach cancer is admitted with intractable nausea and vomiting. He tells you he is participating in a phase-II trial for a new chemotherapeutic agent.
What is the purpose of such a trial?
1- To compare a new drug with the best conventional therapy
2- To determine the long-term toxicity of a drug
3- To establish the antitumour activity of a drug
4- To establish the human toxicity of a drug
5- To study the pharmacokinetics of a drug

Answer: 3- To establish the antitumour activity of a drug

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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