Association of alcohol and tobacco with changes in overall cancer mortality

AJBM crossMark




Alcohol use clearly raises the risk of cancer many times more than drinking or smoking alone. Alcohol may also limit how cells can repair damage to their DNA caused by the chemicals in tobacco. However, exactly how alcohol affects cancer risk isn’t completely understood. In fact, there are likely several different ways it can raise risk, and this might depend on the type of cancer. Total cancer mortality data from the 1990s to 2018 were collected from the Bialystok, Poland of Statistics and Cancer Council, the WHO Cancer Mortality Database. The policies with significant relations to changes in alcohol and tobacco consumption were identified in an initial model. Intervention dummies with estimated lags were then developed based on these key alcohol and tobacco policies and events and inserted into time-series models to estimate the relation of the particular policy changes with cancer mortality. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of smoking and alcohol cancer outcomes.

Keywords: Alcohol; Chemicals in tobacco; Cancer

Copyright © 2021 by The American Society for BioMedicine and BM-Publisher, Inc.

Article citationReferencesFull-Text/PDFBecome reviewer
The citation data is computed by the following citation measuring services:

Cited by (CrossRef)
Google Scholar

  1. Duffy SA, Ronis DL, Valenstein M, et al. A tailored smoking, alcohol, and depression intervention for head and neck cancer patients. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2006;15(11):2203-2208.
  2. Tang K, Li Y, Zhang Z, et al. The PstI/RsaI and DraI polymorphisms of CYP2E1 and head and neck cancer risk: a meta-analysis based on 21 case-control studies. BMC Cancer 2010;10:575.
  3. Browman GP, Wong G, Hodson I, et al. Influence of cigarette smoking on the efficacy of radiation therapy in head and neck cancer. N Engl J Med. 1993;328(3):159-163.
  4. Michie S, Richardson M, Johnston M, et al. The behavior change technique taxonomy (v1) of 93 hierarchically clustered techniques: building an international consensus for the reporting of behavior change interventions. Ann Behav Med. 2013;46(1):81-95.
  5. Rosenquist K, Wennerberg J, Annertz K, et al. Recurrence in patients with oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: human papillomavirus and other risk factors. Acta Otolaryngol. 2007;127(9):980-987.
  6. Sharp L, McDevitt J, Carsin AE, Brown C, Comber H.Smoking at diagnosis is an independent prognostic factor for cancer-specific survival in head and neck cancer: findings from a large, population-based study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014;23(11):2579-2590.
  7. Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. BMJ. 2009;339.
  8. Osei-Sarfo K, Tang XH, Urvalek AM, Scognamiglio T, Gudas LJ. The molecular features of tongue epithelium treated with the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide and alcohol as a model for HNSCC. Carcinogenesis. 2013;34:2673-2681.
  9. Rubin JS, Qiu L, Etkind P. Amplification of the Int-2 gene in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. J Laryngol Otol. 1995;109:72-76.
  10. Warren GW, Kasza KA, Reid ME, Cummings KM, Marshall JR. Smoking at diagnosis and survival in cancer patients. Int J Cancer. 2013;132(2):401-410.
  11. Xu C, Goodz S, Sellers EM, Tyndale RF. CYP2A6 genetic variation and potential consequences. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2002;54:1245-1256.
  12. Karam-Hage M, Cinciripini PM, Gritz ER. Tobacco use and cessation for cancer survivors: an overview for clinicians. CA Cancer J Clin. 2014;64(4):272-290.
  13. Seitz HK, Becker P. Alcohol metabolism and cancer risk. Alcohol Res Health. 2007;30:38-41. 44-37.
  14. Doyle K, Fitzpatrick FA. Redox signaling, alkylation (carbonylation) of conserved cysteines inactivates class I histone deacetylases 1, 2, and 3 and antagonizes their transcriptional repressor function. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:17417-17424.
  15. Yokoyama A, Omori T. Genetic polymorphisms of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases and risk for esophageal and head and neck cancers. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2003;33:111-121.
  16. Chaturvedi AK, D'Souza G, Gillison ML, Katki HA. Burden of HPV-positive oropharynx cancers among ever and never smokers in the U.S. population. Oral Oncol. 2016;60:61-67.
  17. Seitz HK, Stickel F. Molecular mechanisms of alcohol-mediated carcinogenesis. Nat Rev Cancer. 2007;7:599-612.
  18. Eriksson CJ. Acetaldehyde metabolism in vivo during ethanol oxidation. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1977;85A:319-341.
  19. Ganapathy V, Thangaraju M, Prasad PD. Nutrient transporters in cancer: relevance to Warburg hypothesis and beyond. Pharmacol Ther. 2009;121:29-40.
  20. Hong AM, Martin A, Chatfield M, et al. . Human papillomavirus, smoking status and outcomes in tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 2013;132(12):2748-2754.
  21. Verschuur HP, Irish JC, O'Sullivan B, Goh C, Gullane PJ, Pintilie M. A matched control study of treatment outcome in young patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Laryngoscope. 1999;109(2 Pt 1):249-25
  22. Gannon OM, Merida de Long L, Endo-Munoz L, Hazar-Rethinam M, Saunders NA. Dysregulation of the repressive H3K27 trimethylation mark in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma contributes to dysregulated squamous differentiation. Clin Cancer Res. 2013;19:428-441.
  23. Partap S. Stroke and Cerebrovascular Complications in Childhood Cancer Survivors. Seminars in Pediatric Neurology. 2012;19:18-24.
  24. Zhou X, Li Q, Arita A, Sun H, Costa M. Effects of nickel, chromate, and arsenite on histone 3 lysine methylation. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2009;236:78-84.
  25. Siegel R, Ma J, Zou Z, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2014. CA Cancer J Clin. 2014;64:9-29.
  26. Gritz ER, Dresler C, Sarna L. Smoking, the missing drug interaction in clinical trials: ignoring the obvious. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14(10):2287-2293.
  27. Gray RJ. A Class of K-Sample Tests for Comparing the Cumulative Incidence of a Competing Risk. The Annals of Statistics. 1988;16:1141-1154.
  28. Giovannucci E. An Updated Review of the Epidemiological Evidence that Cigarette Smoking Increases Risk of Colorectal Cancer. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. 2001;10:725-731.
  29. Moylan S, Jacka FN, Pasco JA, Berk M. How cigarette smoking may increase the risk of anxiety symptoms and anxiety disorders: a critical review of biological pathways. Brain Behav. 2013;3(3):302-326
  30. Rohrbaugh MJ, Shoham V, Skoyen JA, Jensen M, Mehl MR.We-talk, communal coping, and cessation success in a couple-focused intervention for health-compromised smokers. Fam Process. 2012;51(1):107-121.
  31. Zhang Y, Wang R, Miao L, Zhu L, Jiang H, Yuan H. Different levels in alcohol and tobacco consumption in head and neck cancer patients from 1957 to 2013. PLoS One.
  32. Rose BS, Jeong JH, Nath SK, Lu SM, Mell LK. Population-based study of competing mortality in head and neck cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(26):3503-3509.
  33. Warren Can Cancer Registry Data Be Used to Study Cancer Treatment? Medical care. 2003;41:1003-1005.
  34. Cohen EH, Robinson J, Margolis P, Gaut M, Alperson A, Feagin M. Prostate brachytherapy: the impact of smoking on recurrence and overall survival of localized prostate cancer. American Journal of BioMedicine 2014;2(1):48-57.
  35. Smith GL, Smith BD, Buchholz TA, et al. Cerebrovascular Disease Risk in Older Head and Neck Cancer Patients After Radiotherapy. Journal of clinical oncology. 2008;26:5119-5125.
  36. Ang KK, Harris J, Wheeler R, et al. Human Papillomavirus and Survival of Patients with Oropharyngeal Cancer. New England Journal of Medicine. 2010;363:24-35.
  37. Adams MJ, Lipsitz SR, Colan SD, et al. Cardiovascular Status in Long-Term Survivors of Hodgkin's Disease Treated With Chest Radiotherapy. Journal of clinical oncology. 2004;22:3139-3148.
  38. Cherkas LF, Hunkin JL, Kato BS, et al. The association between physical activity in leisure time and leukocyte telomere length. Arch Intern Med 2008;168:154-158.
  39. Cawthon RM. Telomere length measurement by a novel monochrome multiplex quantitative PCR method. Nucleic Acids Res 2009;37: e21.

Who Can Become a Reviewer?
Any expert in the article's research field can become a reviewer with American Journal of Biomedicine. Editors might ask you to look at a specific aspect of an article,...

Find out more

Research Article
American Journal of BioMedicine Volume 9, Issue 1, pages 43-54
Received October 02, 2020; Accepted December 12, 2020; Published February 19, 2021

How to cite this article
Jiang H, Nofer L, Goepfert A. Association of alcohol and tobacco with changes in overall cancer mortality. American Journal of BioMedicine 2021;9(1):/43-54.
Research Article
1. Abstract
2. Keywords
3. Introduction
4. Methods
5. Results
6. Discussion
7. References

Article metric