The incidence of postpartum hemorrhage after spontaneous and induced vaginal delivery versus elective and emergency caesarian section

AJBM crossMark

Azhar Mousa Al-Turiahi¹, Alla Mohamed Sadiq, Esraa Ali Abbas*


Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal mortality. All women who carry a pregnancy beyond 20 weeks’ gestation are at risk for PPH and its sequel. Although maternal mortality rates have declined greatly in the developed world, PPH remains a leading cause of maternal mortality elsewhere.The aim of this study is to investigate the incidence of PPH in patients delivered by different modality and identify the importance risk factors. A Cross sectional study of 9674 patients admitted to the labor or obstetrics word and theater unit during the period of 5-months duration from 2nd of January to the 31th of December 2015. The results of this data indicated that the identified risk factors of PPH are essential to increased effective care and eventually increased the maternal survival.

Keywords:Postpartum Hemorrhage; Assessment of blood loss; Labour; Maternal Survival

Copyright © 2020 by The American Society for BioMedicine and BM-Publisher, Inc.

Article citationReferencesFull-Text/PDFBecome reviewer
The citation data is computed by the following citation measuring services:

Cited by (CrossRef)
Google Scholar

  1. Weeks A. The prevention and treatment of postpartum hemorrhage: what do we know, and where do we go to next? BJOG 2015;122: 202-210.
  2. Gibbs Ronald. Danforth's obstetrics and gynecology 10th edition Philadelphia Lippincott William Wilkins. p 453, 2008.
  3. Lynch. Christopher B textbook of postpartum hemorrhage a comprehensive guide to evaluation, management and surgical intervention Duncow sapiens publish. p 14-15, 2006.
  4. Ministry of Health, NSW. Maternity - Prevention, Early Recognition & Management of Postpartum Haemorrhage (PPH). NSW Kids & Families
  5. GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death Collaborators. Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet 2015;385(9963):117-171.
  6. Anderson JM btches D. Prevention and management of postpartum hemorrhage. American family physician 2011;75.Belfort MA. Overview of postpartum hemorrhage. Wolters Kluwer 2016.
  7. Sullivan E, Hall B, King J. Maternal deaths in Australia 2003-2005 Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare Canberra 2008.
  8. United Nations. The Millennium Development Goals Report 2008. New York: United Nations; 2008.
  9. World Health Organization (WHO). MPS Technical Update: Prevention of Postpartum Haemorrhage by Active Management of the Third Stage of Labour. Geneva: WHO; 2006.
  10. Haynes K, Stone C, King J. Major morbidities associated with childbirth in Victoria: Obstetric haemorrhage and associated hysterectomy Public Health Group. Department of Human Services, Melbourne; 2004.
  11. Knight M, Callaghan WM, Berg C, et al. Trends in postpartum haemorrhage in high resource countries: a review and recommendations from International Postpartum Haemorrhage Collaborative Group. BMC Pregnancy & Childbirth 2008;9:55.
  12. WHO recommendation for the prevention and treatment of postpartum hemorrhage. Geneva; 2012.
  13. Francois K. Grand Rounds: Managing uterine atony and hemorrhagic shock Critical care in Obstetrics; 2008.
  14. Management of the third stage of labour to prevent post-partum haemorrhage. Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health 2004;49(1);7677.
  15. Biguzzi E. Franchi F. Ambrogi F, et al. Risk factors for postpartum hemorrhage in a cohort of 6011 Italian women. Thrombosis Research 2012;129(4):e1-7.
  16. Jaleel R, Khan A. Post-partum haemorrhage--a risk factor analysis. Mymensingh Med J 2010;19(2):282-9.
  17. Leduc D, Ottawa ON, Biringer A, et al. Induction of Labour. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2013;35(9):840-60.
  18. Magann EF, Evans S, Hutchinson M, Collins R, Lanneau G, Morrison JC. Postpartum hemorrhage after cesarean delivery: an analysis of risk factors. South Me  2005;98(7):681-5.
  19. Conde-Agudelo A, Belizán JM, Lammers C. Maternal-perinatal morbidity and mortality associated with adolescent pregnancy. AJOG 2005;192:342-349.
  20. Sheiner E, Sarid L, Levy A, Seidman DS, Hallak M. Obstetric risk factors and outcome of pregnancies complicated with early postpartum hemorrhage: A population-based study. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2005;18(3):149-54.
  21.  Başer E, Seçkin KD, Erkılınç S, et al.The impact of parity on perinatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by advanced maternal age. J Turk Ger Gynecol Assoc 2013;14(4):205-209.
  22. Lao TT, Sahota DS, Cheng YK, Law LW, Leung TY. Advanced maternal age and postpartum hemorrhage - risk factor or red herring. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2014;27(3):243-6.
  23. Oyelese Y, Ananth CV. Postpartum Hemorrhage: Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Causes. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2010;53(1):147.
  24. Edhi MM,Aslam, HM Naqvi Z, Hashmi H. Postpartum hemorrhage: causes and management. BMC Res Notes 2013;6:236.
  25. Parnas M, Sheiner E, Shoham-Vard I, et al. Moderate to severe thrombocytopenia during pregnancy. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 2005;12;1-6.
  26. Kramer MS, Berg C, Abenhaim H, et al. Incidence, risk factors, and temporal trends in severe postpartum hemorrhage. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2013;209(5):449.e1-7.
  27. Callaghan WM, Kuklina EV, Berg CJ. Trends in postpartum hemorrhage: United States. 1994-2006. AJOG 2010;202(4); 353.e1-353.e6.
  28. Alexander S, Dodds L, Armson BA. Perinatal Outcomes in Women With Asthma During Pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1998;92(3):435-40.
  29. Liu S, Wen SW, Demissie K, Marcoux S, Kramer MS. Maternal asthma and pregnancy outcomes: A retrospective cohort study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001;184(2):90-6.
  30. Yasmeen S, Wilkins EE, Field NT, Sheikh RA, Gilbert WM. Pregnancy outcomes in women with systemic lupus erythematosus. J Matern Fetal Med 2001;10(2):91-6.
  31. El-Refaey E, Rodeck C. Post-partum haemorrhage: definitions, medical and surgical management. A time for change. Br Med Bull 2003;67(1):205-217.
  32. Weisbrod AB, Sheppard FR, Chernofsky MR, et al. Emergent management of postpartum hemorrhage for the general and acute care surgeon. World J Emerg Surg 2009;25;4:43.
  33.  Charbit B, Mandelbrot L, Samain E, et al. The decrease of fibrinogen is an early predictor of the severity of postpartum hemorrhage. J Thromb Haemost 2007;5(2):266-73.
  34. Holm C, Langhoff-Roos J, Petersen KB, Norgaard A, Diness BR. Severe postpartum haemorrhage and mode of delivery: a retrospective cohort study. BJOG 2012;119(5):596-604.
  35. Liu S, Liston RM, Joseph KS, et al. Maternal mortality and severe morbidity associated with low-risk planned cesarean delivery versus planned vaginal delivery at term. CMAJ 2007;13;176(4):455-460.

Who Can Become a Reviewer?
Any expert in the article's research field can become a reviewer with American Journal of Biomedicine. Editors might ask you to look at a specific aspect of an article,...

Find out more

Research Article
American Journal of BioMedicine Volume 8, Issue 1, pages 50-59
Received October 02, 2019; Accepted January 09, 2020; Published March 07, 2020

How to cite this article
Azhar Mousa Al-Turiahi, Alla Mohamed Sadiq, Esraa Ali Abbas. The incidence of postpartum hemorrhage after spontaneous and induced vaginal delivery versus elective and emergency caesarian section. American Journal of BioMedicine 2020;8(1):50-59.
Research Article
1. Abstract
2. Keywords
3. Introduction
4. Methods
5. Results
6. Discussion
7. References

Article metric