Volume 10, Issue 2, April 30 2022, Pages 49-60
Jessica A Braden, Erin M Peairs, Jaya H Onitilo, Michael K Temkit 1*
Prognosis in patients with breast cancer depends mainly on the extent of lymph node involvement, size of the tumor, and the histological grade of the tumor. Among these factors, axillary lymph node status is regarded as the single best marker of prognosis. Sentinel lymph node biopsy has become a standard staging tool in the surgical management of breast cancer. The positive impact of sentinel lymph node biopsy on postoperative negative outcomes in breast cancer patients, without compromising the oncological outcomes, is its major advantage. It has evolved over the last few decades and has proven its utility beyond early breast cancer. Its applicability and efficacy in patients with clinically positive axilla who have had a complete clinical response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is being aggressively evaluated at present. However, the accuracy of sentinel lymph node biopsy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with metastatic breast cancer is unclear. This review study discusses role of sentinel lymph node biopsy in role in advance breast cancer a useful tool in new clinical scenarios of metastatic breast cancer management.
Keywords: Sentinel lymph node biopsy; Metastatic breast cancer; Neoadjuvant chemotherapy
Copyright © 2021 Temkit MK et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Swenson KK, Nissen MJ, Ceronsky C, et al. Comparison of side effects between sentinel lymph node and axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer. Ann Surg Oncol 2002; 9:745-753.
2. Ahmed M, Baker R, Rubio IT. Meta-analysis of aberrant lymphatic drainage in recurrent breast cancer. Br J Surg. 2016; 103:1579-1588.
3. Derkx F, Maaskant-Braat AJ, van der Sangen MJ, Nieuwenhuijzen GA, van de Poll-Franse LV, Roumen RM, et al. Staging and management of axillary lymph nodes in patients with local recurrence in the breast or chest wall after a previous negative sentinel node procedure. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2010; 36:646-651.
4. Dupont EL, Kuhn MA, McCann C, Salud C, Spanton JL, Cox CE. The role of sentinel lymph node biopsy in women undergoing prophylactic mastectomy. Am J Surg. 2000; 180:274-277.
5. Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, Ferlay J, Ward E, Forman D. Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin. 2011; 61(2):69-90.
6. Giuliano AE, Dale PS, Turner RR, et al. Improved axillary staging of breast cancer with sentinel lymphadenectomy. Ann Surg 1995; 222:394-401.
7. Yen TW, Hunt KK, Ross MI, Mirza NQ, Babiera GV, Meric-Bernstam F, et al. Predictors of invasive breast cancer in patients with an initial diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ: a guide to selective use of sentinel lymph node biopsy in management of ductal carcinoma in situ. J Am Coll Surg. 2005; 200:516-526.
8. Sun X, Li H, Liu YB, Zhou ZB, Chen P, Zhao T, et al. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with breast ductal carcinoma in situ: Chinese experiences. Oncol Lett. 2015; 10:1932-1938.
9. Zavotsky J, Hansen N, Brennan MB, Turner RR, Giuliano AE. Lymph node metastasis from ductal carcinoma in situ with microinvasion. Cancer. 1999; 85:2439-2443.
10. van Nijnatten TJ, Schipper RJ, Lobbes MB, Nelemans PJ, Beets-Tan RG, Smidt ML. The diagnostic performance of sentinel lymph node biopsy in pathologically confirmed node positive breast cancer patients after neoadjuvant systemic therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2015; 41:1278-1287.
11. Piato JR, Barros AC, Pincerato KM, et al. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. A pilot study. Eur J Surg Oncol 2003; 29:118-120.
12. Tan VK, Goh BK, Fook-Chong S, Khin LW, Wong WK, Yong WS. The feasibility and accuracy of sentinel lymph node biopsy in clinically node-negative patients after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Surg Oncol. 2011; 104:97-103.
13. Baselga J, Bradbury I, Eidtmann H, Di Cosimo S, de Azambuja E, Aura C, et al. Lapatinib with trastuzumab for HER2-positive early breast cancer (NeoALTTO): a randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2012; 379:633-640.
14. Beek MA, Verheuvel NC, Luiten EJ, Klompenhouwer EG, Rutten HJ, Roumen RM, et al. Two decades of axillary management in breast cancer. Br J Surg. 2015; 102:1658-166.
15. Veronesi U, Viale G, Paganelli G, Zurrida S, Luini A, Galimberti V, et al. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer: ten-year results of a randomized controlled study. Ann Surg. 2010; 251(4):595-600.
16. Galimberti V, Cole BF, Zurrida S, Viale G, Luini A, Veronesi P, et al. Axillary dissection versus no axillary dissection in patients with sentinel-node micrometastases (IBCSG 23-01): a phase 3 randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013; 14:297-305.
17. Giuliano AE, Hunt KK, Ballman KV, Beitsch PD, Whitworth PW, Blumencranz PW, et al. Axillary dissection vs no axillary dissection in women with invasive breast cancer and sentinel node metastasis: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2011; 305:569-575.
18. Chagpar AB. Clinical significance of minimal sentinel node involvement and management options. Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 2010; 19:493-505.
19. Ashikaga T, Krag DN, Land SR, Julian TB, Anderson SJ, Brown AM, et al. Morbidity results from the NSABP B-32 trial comparing sentinel lymph node dissection versus axillary dissection. J Surg Oncol. 2010; 102:111-118.
20. Veronesi U, Paganelli G, Viale G, et al. A randomized comparison of sentinel-node biopsy with routine axillary dissection in breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2003; 349:546-53.
21. Veronesi U, Viale G, Paganelli G, et al. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer: Ten-year results of a randomized controlled study. Ann Surg. 2010; 251:595-600.
22. Rao R, Euhus D, Mayo HG, et al. Axillary node interventions in breast cancer: a systematic review. JAMA 2013; 310:1385.
23. James TA, Coffman AR, Chagpar AB, et al. Troubleshooting sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer surgery. Ann Surg Oncol. 2016; 23:3459.
24. Barthelmes L, Goyal A, Newcombe RG, McNeill F, Mansel RENEW START and ALMANAC Study Groups. Adverse reactions to patent blue V dye: the NEW START and ALMANAC experience. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2010; 36:399-403.
25. Raut CP, Hunt KK, Akins JS, et al. Incidence of anaphylactoid reactions to isosulfan blue dye during breast carcinoma lymphatic mapping in patients treated with preoperative prophylaxis: results of a surgical prospective clinical practice protocol. Cancer. 2005; 104:692.
26. Wilke LG, McCall LM, Posther KE, et al. Surgical complications associated with sentinel lymph node biopsy: results from a prospective international cooperative group trial. Ann Surg Oncol. 2006; 13:491.
27. Thevarajah S, Huston TL, Simmons RM. A comparison of the adverse reactions associated with isosulfan blue versus methylene blue dye in sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer. Am J Surg. 2005; 189:236.
28. Bleicher RJ, Kloth DD, Robinson D, et al. Inflammatory cutaneous adverse effects of methylene blue dye injection for lymphatic mapping/sentinel lymphadenectomy. J Surg Oncol. 2009; 99:356
29. Krag DN, Anderson SJ, Julian TB, et al. Technical outcomes of sentinel-lymph-node resection and conventional axillary-lymph-node dissection in patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer: results from the NSABP B-32 randomised phase III trial. Lancet Oncol. 2007; 8:881-888.
30. Veronesi U, Paganelli G, Viale G, Luini A, Zurrida S, Galimberti V, et al. A randomized comparison of sentinel-node biopsy with routine axillary dissection in breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2003;349: 546-553.
31. Curigliano G, Burstein HJ, Winer EP, Gnant M, Dubsky P, Loibl S, et al. De-escalating and escalating treatments for early-stage breast cancer: the St. Gallen International Expert Consensus Conference on the Primary Therapy of Early Breast Cancer 2017. Ann Oncol. 2017; 28(8):1700-12.
32. Caudle AS, Cupp JA, Kuerer HM. Management of axillary disease. Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 2014; 23:473-486.
33. Cancer Research Campaign Working Party. Cancer Research Campaign (King's/Cambridge) trial for early breast cancer: a detailed update at the tenth year. Lancet. 1980; 2:55-60.
34. Siegel R, Naishadham D, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2012. CA Cancer J Clin. 2012; 62(1):10-29.
35. Veronesi U, Cascinelli N, Mariani L, et al. Twenty-year follow-up of a randomized study comparing breastconserving surgery with radical mastectomy for early breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2002; 347:1227-1232.
36. Beenken SW, Urist MM, Zhang Y, et al. Axillary lymph node status, but not tumor size predicts locoregional recurrence and overall survival after mastectomy for breast cancer. Ann Surg 2003; 237:732-738.
37. Petrek JA, Senie RT, Peters M, Rosen PP. Lymphedema in a cohort of breast carcinoma survivors 20 years after diagnosis. Cancer 2001; 92:1368-1377.
38. Lyman GH, Somerfield MR, Bosserman LD, et al. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for patients with early-stage breast cancer: american society of clinical oncology clinical practice guideline update. J Clin Oncol. 2017; 35:561-4.
39. Li C, Meng S, Yang X. Sentinel lymph node detection using magnetic resonance lymphography with conventional gadolinium contrast agent in breast cancer: a preliminary clinical study. BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:213.
40. Shiozawa M, Kobayashi S, Sato Y, et al. Magnetic resonance lymphography of sentinel lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer using superparamagnetic iron oxide: a feasibility study. Breast Cancer. 2014; 21:394-401.
41. Cox K, Sever A, Jones S, et al. Validation of a technique using microbubbles and contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) to biopsy sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) in pre-operative breast cancer patients with a normal grey-scale axillary ultrasound. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2013; 39:760.
42. Sever A, Jones S, Cox K, et al. Preoperative localization of sentinel lymph nodes using intradermal microbubbles and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in patients with breast cancer. Br J Surg. 2009; 96:1295-9.
43. Sever AR, Mills P, Jones SE, et al. Preoperative sentinel node identification with ultrasound using microbubbles in patients with breast cancer. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011; 196:251-6.
44. Gkegkes ID, Iavazzo C. Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEU) using microbubbles for sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer: a systematic review. Acta Chir Belg. 2015; 115:212.
45. Xie F, Zhang D, Cheng L, et al. Intradermal microbubbles and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is a feasible approach for sentinel lymph node identification in early-stage breast cancer. World J Surg Oncol. 2015; 13:319.
46. Matsuzawa F, Omoto K, Einama T. Accurate evaluation of axillary sentinel lymph node metastasis using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography with Sonazoid in breast cancer: a preliminary clinical trial. Springerplus. 2015; 4:509.
47. Dellaportas D, Koureas A, Contis J. Contrast-enhanced color doppler ultrasonography for preoperative evaluation of sentinel lymph node in breast cancer patients. Breast Care (Basel). 2015; 10:331-5.
48. Roumen RM, Kuijt GP, Liem IH, van Beek MW. Treatment of 100 patients with sentinel node-negative breast cancer without further axillary dissection. Br J Surg. 2001; 88: 1639-1643.
49. Clarke D, Khonji NI, Mansel RE. Sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer: ALMANAC trial. World J Surg 2001; 25: 819-822.
50. Harlow SP, Krag DN. Sentinel lymph node-why study it: implications of the B-32 study. Semin Surg Oncol. 2001; 20: 224-229.
51. Mehralivand S, van der Poel H, Winter A, et al. Sentinel lymph node imaging in urologic oncology. Translational Andrology and Urology. 2018; 7(5):887-902.
52. Renz M, Diver E, English D, et al. Sentinel lymph node biopsies in endometrial cancer: Practice patterns among gynecologic oncologists in the United States. Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology 2019; pii: S1553-4650(19)30184-0.
53. Reneé Franklin C, Tanner EJ III. Where are we going with sentinel lymph node mapping in gynecologic cancers? Current Oncology Reports. 2018; 20(12):96.
54. Chen SL, Iddings DM, Scheri RP, Bilchik AJ. Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node analysis: current concepts and applications. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 2006; 56(5):292-309.
55. Krag DN, Anderson SJ, Julian TB, et al. Sentinel-lymph-node resection compared with conventional axillary-lymph-node dissection in clinically node-negative patients with breast cancer: overall survival findings from the NSABP B-32 randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncology. 2010; 11(10):927-933.
56. Giuliano AE, Hunt KK, Ballman KV, et al. Axillary dissection vs no axillary dissection in women with invasive breast cancer and sentinel node metastasis: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. 2011; 305(6):569-575.
57. Giuliano AE, Ballman KV, McCall L, et al. Effect of axillary dissection vs no axillary dissection on 10-year overall survival among women with invasive breast cancer and sentinel node metastasis: The ACOSOG Z0011 (Alliance) randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2017; 318(10):918-926.
58. Valsecchi ME, Silbermins D, de Rosa N, Wong SL, Lyman GH. Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with melanoma: a meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2011; 29(11):1479-1487.
59. Faries MB, Thompson JF, Cochran AJ, et al. Completion dissection or observation for sentinel-node metastasis in melanoma. New England Journal of Medicine. 2017; 376(23):2211-2222.
60. Javid SH, He H, Korde LA, et al. Predictors and outcomes of completion axillary node dissection among older breast cancer patients. Ann Surg Oncol. 2014; 21(7):2172-80.
61. Breslin TM, Cohen L, Sahin A, et al. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is accurate after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2000; 18(20):3480-6.
For any technique error please contact us
American Journal of BioMedicine Volume 10, Issue 2, pages 49-60
Received January 30, 2022, 2022; revised March 23, 2022; accepted April 23, 2022; published April 30, 2022.
How to cite this article
Braden JA, Peairs EM, Onitilo JH, Temkit MK. New techniques for sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer. American Journal of BioMedicine. 2022; 10(2):49-60.