Advertisement

Neonatal endometrium bleeding

 
crossMark
 
Review Article  
dx.doi.org/10.18081/2333-5106/015-11/686-698
American Journal of BioMedicine Volume 3, Issue 11, pages 686-698
Published: November 08, 2015


Lynn Aricia, c, Arun B. Gopinatha, c, Mark Richardsa, b, Charles F. Lockwooda, c, Stephen W. Lyea mail of corresponding author

Abstract

During the third trimester of pregnancy, the uterine cervix undergoes tremendous growth along with the vagina but not along the uterine corpus. Vaginal bleeding in the immediate post-natal period is, similarly to what happens during a menstrual cycle, due to endometrial shedding triggered by withdrawal of circulating steroid hormones. Furthermore, the presence of endometriosis in pre-menarcheal girls and even in severe stage in adolescents supports the theory that early-onset endometriosis may originate from retrograde uterine bleeding soon after birth. Endometrial glands in the fetal uterine corpus showed that nuclei increase in size with gestation. This marker of cellular activity plateaued at term and immediately after delivery. This review summarizes information related to the biological roles of uterine glands and their secretions in uterine neonate.

Keywords:Endometriosis; Bleeding; Neonate; Uterine gland; Endometrial shedding

Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for BioMedicine and BM-Publisher, Inc.

ReferencesFull-Text/PDFFeedback

References

1. Blumenkrantz MJ, Gallagher N, Bashore RA, Tenckhoff H. Retrograde menstruation in women undergoing chronic peritoneal dialysis (1981). Obstet Gynecol 1981; 57:667-670. [PubMed]

2. Brosens IA, Brosens JJ. Endometriosis. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2000; 90:159-164. [PubMed]

3. Kammerer U, Rieger L, Kapp M, Dietl J, Ruck P. Immunocompetent cells in the endometrium of fetuses and children. Hum Reprod 2003; 8:969-975. 

4. Yang YP, Wang Y, Jie Yang JY, Wang S, Lang JH. Adolescent endometriosis in China: a retrospective analysis of 63 cases. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2012; 25:295-299. [PubMed]

5. Anwar S, Buhring HJ, Gargett CE. A single perivascular marker identifies MSC in human endometrium and menstrual blood. Aust Health Med Res Congress 2008; 4:P700.

6. Bokor A, Debrock S, Drijkoningen M, Goossens W, Fulop V, 'Hooghe T. Quantity and quality of retrograde menstruation: a case control study. Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2009; 7:123. [PubMed]

7. Wu Y, Basir Z, Kajdacsy-Balla A, et al. Resolution of clonal origins for endometriotic lesions using laser capture microdissection and the human androgen receptor (HUMARA) assay. Fertil Steril 2003; 79:710-717. [PubMed]

8. Okabe H, Makino S, Kato K, et al. The effect of progesterone on genes involved in preterm labor. J Reprod Immunol 2014;104-105:80-91. [PubMed]

9. Brosens I, Benagiano G. The endometrium from the neonate to the adolescent. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2015; 26:1-5. [PubMed]

10. Signorile PG, Baldi F, Bussani R, et al. Embryologic origin of endometriosis: analysis of 101 human female fetuses. J Cell Physiol 2012; 227:1653-1656. [PubMed]

11. Sanfilippo JS, Wakim NG, Schikler KN, Yussman MA. Endometriosis in association with uterine anomaly. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1986;154:39-43. [PubMed]

12. VMcLachlan JA, Simpson E, Martin M. Endocrine disrupters and female reproductive health. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006; 20:63–75. [PubMed]

13.Nawroth F, Rahimi G, Nawroth C, Foth D, Ludwig M, Schmidt T. Is there an association between septate uterus and endometriosis? Hum Reprod 2006; 2:542–544. [PubMed]

14. edwine DB. Invisible microscopic endometriosis: a review. Gynecol Obstet Invest 2003; 55:63–67. [PubMed]

15. Brosens I, Puttemans P, Deprest J. Appearances of endometriosis. Baillieres Clin Obstet Gynaecol.1993; 7(4):741-57. [PubMed]

16. Cooke PS, Spencer TE, Bartol FF, Hayashi K. Uterine glands: development, function and experimental model systems. Mol Hum Reprod 2013;19(9):547-58. [PubMed]

17. Arango NA, Szotek PP, Manganaro TF, et al. Conditional deletion of beta-catenin in the mesenchyme of the developing mouse uterus results in a switch to adipogenesis in the myometrium. Dev Biol 2005; 288:276–283. [PubMed]

18. Bartol FF, Wiley AA, Coleman DA, et al. Ovine uterine morphogenesis: effects of age and progestin administration and withdrawal on neonatal endometrial development and DNA synthesis. J Anim Sci 1988; 66:3000–3009. [PubMed]

19. Bartol FF, Wiley AA, Bagnell CA. Epigenetic programming of porcine endometrial function and the lactocrine hypothesis. Reprod Dom Anim 2008; 43:273–279. [PubMed]

20. Bazer FW, Wu G, Spencer TE, et al. Novel pathways for implantation and establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in mammals. Mol Hum Reprod 2010; 16:135–152. [PubMed]

21. Burton GJ, Jauniaux E, Charnock-Jones DS. Human early placental development: potential roles of the endometrial glands. Placenta 2007; 28:S64–S69. [PubMed]

22. Cooke PS, Borsdorf DC, Ekman GC, et al. Uterine gland development, cell proliferation and steroid hormone receptor expression in the postnatal dog.Theriogenology 2012b; 78:1787–1795. [PubMed]

23. Yan W, Wiley AA, Bathgate RA, et al. Expression of LGR7 and LGR8 by neonatal porcine uterine tissues and transmission of milk-borne relaxin into the neonatal circulation by suckling. Endocrinology 2006;147:4303–4310. [PubMed]

24. Winuthayanon W, Hewitt SC, Orvis GD, Behringer RR, Korach KS. Uterine epithelial estrogen receptor α is dispensable for proliferation but essential for complete biological and biochemical responses. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2010; 107:19272–19277. [PubMed]

25. Spencer TE, Hayashi K, Hu J, Carpenter KD. Comparative developmental biology of the mammalian uterus. Curr Top Dev Biol 2005b; 68:85–122. [PubMed]

26. Okulicz WC. Regeneration. In: Glasser SR, Aplin JD, Giudice LC, Tabibzadeh S, editors. The Endometrium. London: Taylor and Francis, Inc.; 2002. pp. 110–120.

27. Mericskay M, Kitajewski J, Sassoon D. Wnt5a is required for proper epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in the uterus. Development 2004; 131:2061–2072. [PubMed]

Limited access article

limited access This article with limited access need to be buy, before continue with your purchase please read carefully the AJBM terms and conditions of purchase.

Purchase this article at rate $55.00 and received Full-Text/PDF
You will have online immediate access to article following the completion of this purchase and you may download and print a copy of each article for your personal use. Use the coding below to purchase your article as PDF by credit card, debit card, payball will be asked to supply your billing card information.

 

For any technique error please contact us and will be response to sending purchase article by email.

Thank you for visiting American Journal of BioMedicine.  * = Required fields

[gravityform id=”6″ name=”Feedback”]

American Journal of Biomedicine © 2017 Frontier Theme
%d bloggers like this: