American Journal of BioMedicine
Volume 10, Issue 3, September 06 2022, Pages 128-135| http://dx.doi.org/10.18081/2333-5106/2022.10/128
D Migliaccio1, S Tripodi, A Ragone*
Received March 22 2022 Revised May 30 2022 Accepted July 08 2022 Published September 06 2022
Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) being multifaceted, it acquires genetic and epigenetic variations. These changes tend to control differentiation, proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of tumors. Surgery considered the most effective treatment for NSCLC in the initial stage, about 70 to 80% of patients are not convinced about it essentially because of locoregional tumor extension, extrathoracic spread, or poor physical and functional condition when diagnosed. Cytokines have proved to be successful in cancer treatment, but the impact of certain promising targets on different immune cell populations is still unknown. In the present study, a total of 250 papers including 230 research papers and 20 review papers, extracted from PubMed and Scopus and published from December 31, 1995, to December 31 2021, are reviewed. The most important involved-chemokines in lung cancer including α-chemokine (CC), β-chemokine (CXC), γ-chemokine (C), and δ-chemokine (CX3C). While essential cytokines in lung cancer including TNF-α, IFN- γ, TGF-β and interleukins such as IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8, and IL-18 are introduced. The pathological role of such chemokines and cytokines in cancer signaling pathways are investigated.
Keywords: Cytokines; Lung cancer; Chemokines; Interleukins
Copyright © 2022 A Ragone, et al. This article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Molina JR, Yang P, Cassivi SD, Schild SE, Adjei AA. Non-small cell lung cancer: epidemiology, risk factors, treatment, and survivorship. Mayo Clin Proc 2008; 83:584-594.
2. Thommen DS, Koelzer VH, Herzig P, et al. A transcriptionally and functionally distinct PD-1+ CD8+ T cell pool with predictive potential in non-small- cell lung cancer treated with PD-1 blockade. Nature Medicine 2018; 24(7):994-1004.
3. P. Sarode MB. Schaefer, F. Grimminger, W. Seeger, and R. Savai, "Macrophage and tumor cell cross-talk is fundamental for lung tumor progression: we need to talk," Frontiers in Oncology 2020;10:1-11.
4. Joshi BH, Hogaboam C, Dover P, Husain SR, Puri RK. Role of interleukin‐13 in cancer, pulmonary fibrosis, and other TH2‐type diseases. In: Interleukins. Elsevier 2006; 479-504.
5. Matanić D, Beg-Zec Z, Stojanović D, Matakorić N, Flego V, Milevoj-Ribić F. Cytokines in patients with lung cancer. Scand J Immunol 2003 ;57(2):173-178.
6. Carpagnano GE, Spanevello A, Curci C et al. IL-2, TNF-alpha, and leptin: local versus systemic concentrations in NSCLC patients. Oncol Res 2007; 16(8):375-381.
7. Wu FY, Fan J, Tang L, Zhao YM, Zhou CC. Atypical chemokine receptor D6 inhibits human non-small cell lung cancer growth by sequestration of chemokines. Oncol Lett 2013; 6:91-95.
8. Schmall A, Al-Tamari HM, Herold S, Kampschulte M, Weigert A, Wietelmann A. et al. Macrophage and cancer cell cross-talk via CCR2 and CX3CR1 is a fundamental mechanism driving lung cancer. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2015; 191:437-447.
9. Kee JY, Arita Y, Shinohara K, Ohashi Y, Sakurai H, Saiki I. et al. Antitumor immune activity by chemokine CX3CL1 in an orthotopic implantation of lung cancer model. Mol Clin Oncol 2013; 1:35-40.
10. Travis WD. Pathology of lung cancer. Clin Chest Med 2011; 32:669-692.
11. Coussens LM, Werb Z. Inflammation and cancer. Nature 2002; 420:860-867.
12. Bachelerie F, Ben-Baruch A, Burkhardt AM, Combadiere C, Farber JM, Graham GJ. et al. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. [corrected]. LXXXIX. Update on the extended family of chemokine receptors and introducing a new nomenclature for atypical chemokine receptors. Pharmacol Rev 2014; 66:1-79.
13. Singh S, Sadanandam A, Singh RK. Chemokines in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. Cancer Metastasis Rev 2007; 26:453-467.
14. Koontongkaew S. The tumor microenvironment contribution to development, growth, invasion and metastasis of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. J Cancer 2013; 4:66-83.
15. Lee HJ, Kim YT, Park PJ, Shin YS, Kang KN, Kim Y. et al. A novel detection method of non-small cell lung cancer using multiplexed bead-based serum biomarker profiling. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2012; 143:421-427.
16. Xu Y, Liu L, Qiu X, Liu Z, Li H, Li Z. et al. CCL21/CCR7 prevents apoptosis via the ERK pathway in human non-small cell lung cancer cells. PLoS One 2012; 7:e33262.
17. Gupta P, Sharma PK, Mir H, Singh R, Singh N, Kloecker GH. et al. CCR9/CCL25 expression in non-small cell lung cancer correlates with aggressive disease and mediates key steps of metastasis. Oncotarget 2014; v5:10170-10179.
18. Zhu YM, Webster SJ, Flower D, Woll PJ. Interleukin-8/CXCL8 is a growth factor for human lung cancer cells. Br J Cancer 2004; 91:1970-1976.
19. Zhang Y, Wang L, Zhang M, Jin M, Bai C, Wang X. Potential mechanism of interleukin-8 production from lung cancer cells: an involvement of EGF-EGFR-PI3K-Akt-Erk pathway. J Cell Physiol 2012;227: 35-43.
20. Yousif NG, Sadiq AM, Yousif MG, Al-Mudhafar RH, Al-Baghdadi JJ, Hadi N. Notch1 ligand signaling pathway activated in cervical cancer: poor prognosis with high-level JAG1/Notch1. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2015; 292(4):899-904.
21. Long GV, Schachter J, Ribas A, Arance AM, Grob J-J, Mortier L, et al. 4-year survival and outcomes after cessation of pembrolizumab (pembro) after 2-years in patients (pts) with ipilimumab (ipi)-naive advanced melanoma in KEYNOTE-006. J Clin Oncol 2018; 36(15 Suppl.):9503.
22. Rizvi NA, Hellmann MD, Snyder A, Kvistborg P, Makarov V, Havel JJ, et al. Mutational landscape determines sensitivity to PD-1 blockade in non-small cell lung cancer. Science 2015; 348:124-8.
23. Mathew M, Safyan RA, Shu CA. PD-L1 as a biomarker in NSCLC: challenges and future directions. Ann Transl Med 2017; 5:375.
24. Balkwill F. Cancer and the chemokine network. Nat Rev Cancer 2004; 4:540.
25. Pardoll DM. The blockade of immune checkpoints in cancer immunotherapy. Nat Rev Cancer 2012; 12:252.
26. Seymour L, Bogaerts J, Perrone A, Ford R, Schwartz LH, Mandrekar S, et al. iRECIST: guidelines for response criteria for use in trials testing immunotherapeutics. Lancet Oncol 2017; 18:e143-52.
27. Okazaki T, Honjo T. PD-1 and PD-1 ligands: from discovery to clinical application. Int Immunol 2007; 19:813-24.
28. Blank CU, Haanen JB, Ribas A, Schumacher TN. The "cancer immunogram". Science 2016; 352:658-60.
29. Byrne EH, Fisher DE. Immune and molecular correlates in melanoma treated with immune checkpoint blockade. Cancer 2017; 123:2143-53.
30. Ribas A. Adaptive immune resistance: how cancer protects from immune attack. Cancer Discov. 2015; 5:915-9.
31. Herbst RS, Baas P, Kim DW, et al. Pembrolizumab versus docetaxel for previously treated, PD-L1-positive, advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (KEYNOTE-010): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2016; 387:1540-1550.
32. Tripathi SC, Peters HL, Taguchi A, et al. Immunoproteasome deficiency is a feature of non-small cell lung cancer with a mesenchymal phenotype and is associated with a poor outcome. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2016;113: E1555-E1564.
33. Sadique AM, Al-Huseini LM, Noaman M, et al. High-Level of Notch 1/Jagged 1 Level up Regulated Chemo-Resistance of Cisplatin in NSCLC. Sys Rev Pharm 2020; 11(5):917-922.
34. Critchley-Thorne RJ, Simons DL, Yan N, et al. Impaired interferon signaling is a common immune defect in human cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2009; 106:9010-9015.
35. Hirsch FR, McElhinny A, Stanforth D, et al. PD-L1 immunohistochemistry assays for lung cancer: results from phase 1 of the blueprint PD-L1 IHC assay comparison project. J Thorac Oncol 2017; 12:208-222.
36. Rimm DL, Han G, Taube JM, et al. A prospective, multi-institutional, pathologist-based assessment of 4 immunohistochemistry assays for PD-L1 expression in non-small cell lung cancer. JAMA Oncol 2017; 3:1051-1058.
37. Prat A, Navarro A, Pare L, et al. Immune-related gene expression profiling after PD-1 blockade in non-small cell lung carcinoma, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Cancer Res 2017; 77:3540-3550.
38. Reguart N, Teixido C, Gimenez-Capitan A, et al. Identification of ALK, ROS1 and RET fusions by a multiplexed mRNA-based assay in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples from advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients. Clin Chem 2017; 63:751-760.
39. Peters S, Cappuzzo F, Horn L, et al. OA03.05 Analysis of Early Survival in Patients with Advanced Non-Squamous NSCLC Treated with Nivolumab vs Docetaxel in CheckMate 057. J Thorac Oncol 2017;12:S253.
40. Rebelatto MC, Midha A, Mistry A, et al. Development of a programmed cell death ligand-1 immunohistochemical assay validated for analysis of non-small cell lung cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Diagn Pathol 2016; 11:95.
41. Yousif NG, Mohammed KG, Mohammed SM, Hadi NR. Association between Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxicity and the Progression of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. Sys Rev Pharm 2020; 11(4):543-551.
42. Rimm DL, Han G, Taube JM, et al. A Prospective, Multi-institutional, Pathologist-Based Assessment of 4 Immunohistochemistry Assays for PD-L1 Expression in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. JAMA Oncol 2017; 3:1051-58.
43. Vogelstein B, Papadopoulos N, Velculescu VE, et al. Cancer genome landscapes. Science 2013; 339:1546-58.
44. Chen N, Fang W, Zhan J, et al. Upregulation of PD-L1 by EGFR Activation Mediates the Immune Escape in EGFR-Driven NSCLC: Implication for Optional Immune Targeted Therapy for NSCLC Patients with EGFR Mutation. J Thorac Oncol 2015; 10:910-23.
2. PDF XML
For any technique error please contact us.